Democratic Values Two decades after the end of communist rule, Eastern Europeans have largely embraced democratic values. Most want civil liberties, competitive elections and other tenets of democracy. However, throughout the region there is a significant gap between what people want and what they have, as relatively few believe the elements of democracy that they prize actually characterize their countries. And even though they want democracy, most Eastern Europeans consider a prosperous economy even more important.
Youth Fitness Testing Practices: Global Trends and New Development Authors: Constant content comparison method was used to identify differences. The data from the study indicated that the above four tests undertook a few revisions from their inception, varying among the tests.
There were three shared test components i. The cut-off value for each test also varied for the same gender and age. Fitness knowledge and physical activity assessment were only included in youth fitness test battery in Russia. New technologies emerged in youth fitness test batteries, changing how tests were implemented in schools.
Most importantly, physical fitness is a key indicator of the well-being of children and adolescents and a vital predictor of health later in life Previous research has indicated that it is critical to educate youth to be physically active as early as possible 13, 24, Thus, various types of youth tests have been developed in many countries and revisions have been made periodically 5, 21, 27, However, it is important to point out that the need for fitness testing in schools has been debated for years 17, Although it is obvious that there is strong support of youth fitness testing in schools on a regular basismany researchers have questioned the necessity An analysis of the youth in russia and their values regular implementation of youth fitness tests 4, Appropriate fitness testing has great unrealized potentials as a critical component within physical education, fitness, and sport 24, More alarmingly, this growing epidemic coincides with a lack of knowledge about fitness testing, particularly in English speaking countries 21, One of the most comprehensive studies found in English language on youth fitness testing was reported by Castro-Pinero and associates 5 who analyzed 15 physical fitness test batteries currently being used worldwide.
Although the authors examined three youth fitness testing batteries used at the time in China i.
Specifically, GTO is the fitness testing system updated in the century Russia after it served as the foundation for the former USSR and current Chinese and Russian sporting successes and for monitoring physical fitness at the national level Such significant changes warrant more research on the topic to keep up with the new development of youth fitness testing practices worldwide in a timely manner.
Given that fitness testing has been driven by various social, cultural, and physiological factors 21the lack of complete and updated information concerning youth fitness testing batteries used across nations limited our overall understanding about physical fitness testing practices, and it also leads to inconsistent and ineffective use of different fitness tests 6, 10, Thus, there is an urgent need for a more encompassing comparative analysis of current fitness testing batteries servicing global populations so that countries could learn from each other and borrow optimal test components and methods.
Therefore, the purpose of this project is to address differences and commonalities among the four most widely implemented youth fitness tests i. It is hoped that the identification of possible ways to strengthen these tests could help increase physical activity levels, reduce public health concerns, and improve workplace productivity across countries.
It is also anticipated that the results of our study would shed new light on how to develop effective fitness tests to promote fitness. In order to help readers better understand the current project, it is necessary to note that there are physical fitness tests in many countries and only the four widely used youth fitness test programs were selected, even though both GTO and ALPHA are also designed for adults.
Fitness test programs designed for adults only were excluded based on the purpose of the project. METHOD Previous reviews of fitness test batteries were examined to provide baseline data for selecting representative youth fitness test programs in major countries worldwide.
The four tests were analyzed to provide a greater understanding of youth fitness testing characteristics as well as to suggest a broader scope of using these fitness test programs. This information has not been previously available in English language. The document analysis method was employed to examine the four tests.
Specifically, data related to testing components and items, cut-off values for each gender and age group, and awards were then collected. The co-authors double checked the accuracy of the collected data by independently coding the data and checking the consistency of the coded data among the coders.
The data analyses focused on the differences and commonalities among the four fitness programs by comparing fitness testing components, items, test battery costs, website design, and assessing system including cut-off values and awards. Peer debriefing was utilized as a main strategy to ensure the rigor of the analytic process Based on the total number of test items, health-related fitness components dominated all the selected test batteries, despite variations among the four countries.
Noticeably, life related skills such as camping, recommended weekly physical activities, and fitness knowledge for each age group were only included in GTO see Table 5. Testing items The only common testing items were push-ups or modified push-ups and sit-ups or curl-ups, but these were not included in the ALPHA test.
Body composition component is included in all but GTO. Interestingly, testing items in the same component varied greatly among the four test programs. Only ALPHA offered a shorter version to teachers who have limited class time, suggesting that teachers did not have to implement all the test items.
Noticeably, GTO was more individualized being able to choose testing items to be tested on considering only GTO employed swimming and skiing as optional testing items for cardiovascular endurance while other batteries included running related items only, even though the running distance i.
Shuttle run with different distances i. In addition, only China had different test items for school-aged females while GTO designed unique sex specific tests for elderly adults only, which is beyond the scope of the current study.According to Diuk, in both Russia and Ukraine materialistic values such as the right to a job, the right to a home, and the right to education were the three most important values, with freedom of speech coming in fourth and freedom of conscience coming in last.
Policy- and decision-makers can refer to the Center for European Policy Analysis’s compromise their values, but also the increasing levels of inequality and youth frustration.
Inequality. CHURCH AND YOUTH IN RUSSIA Ershov Bogdan Anatolievich1, Perevozchikova Larisa Sergeevna1, solved the insufficiently studied problem that allows rethinking the religiosity of youth, because today young people in their social nature represent a "holographic" reflection of all the contradictions and opportunities in of values, a .
Taking the median percentage saying these values are very important in each country and comparing it with the median percentage saying these values describe their country very well gives us an overall democracy gap for each country.
Russia: Youth and Politics Mikhail Korostikov. April Russia/NIS Center. WEBSITE. their values and ideals? A study by the “Kryshtanovskaya Laboratory” After the collapse of the USSR, academic research on Russia’s youth have become rarer. In the s statistics were not even being collected.
In a country with a resource. Ukrainian youth discover Russia through the contrasting phenomena or events: while some people are affected by communication with relatives in the neighboring country, others are on the front line.