Constitutional economics was popularized by James M. Buchananfor which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences pictured here in September The term "constitutional economics" was coined in by the U.
This of course depends primarily on the moisture content of the grain at the time of harvesting, as this study clearly shows. It was a component in a fuller research programme lasting several years and covered seven months' storage August Marchobserving the combined effects of three pre-storage factors variety of maize, whether or not fertilizer was used and timing of harvesting on three main groups of parameters: Over the seven months, samples were taken every two weeks making a total of 13 from 24 well-monitored granaries.
Depending on the time of harvesting, the moisture content of the maize ranged between The results are summarized as follows: This is merely a selection of the extensive information supplied by this study, to be taken with due caution. Its interest lies primarily in its concern to explain the method used and the limitations of its work.
For example, the following principle is stated with respect to the distinction between early and late harvesting: Maize is more difficult to dry than other cereals because of its high moisture content at harvest time and the same problem arises with storage and conservation.
Small farmers therefore often prefer to keep the cobs enclosed in their husks in order to protect them against weevils, even if certain varieties have thinner husks and softer grains that make them an easier prey for insects. On the other hand, in regions with a high rainfall, it is better to store cobs without their coverings, so long as they are treated against insects and ensured sufficient aeration.
This is traditionally done in the humid tropics and equatorial regions such as the area bordering the Gulf of Benin, where the cobs are carefully arranged in layers on a circular platform and covered with a thick layer of leaves or stubble stacked like a conical hat.
The bases of the cobs are turned outwards, so that the gaps between them allow natural ventilation and once the initial drying is completed, this helps to counter rises in temperature and moisture. However, climates that are regularly moist and warm are bound to encourage the development of insects such as Sitophilus spp.
The latter, known as the larger grain borer, is particularly formidable because of its proliferation and its remarkable appetite. It has gradually spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa from east to west, especially in areas with a high rainfall and has become a veritable plague over the years.
Encountering no natural predators, it has adapted extremely well to the African continent. The many surveys carried out in these regions, notably on behalf of FAO, have shown losses from insects of between two and three percent for husked cobs after six months' storage in traditional granaries.
The higher losses occurring during threshing as a result of previous damage should then be added to this two and three percent.
As growers explain, grain damaged by insects in the course of three months' storage becomes worthless, resulting in a loss of as much as 15 percent.
This happens only in regions with no dry season. In more northerly regions with a dry season of about five months December to Aprilinsects do not appear and proliferate once more until May, when the humidity of the ambient air rises markedly.
The Brazilian study already mentioned, together with some other more general statistics, will enable us to broaden the field of observation and produce closer estimates of the average losses in different regions and with different practices. For maize, overall verified losses in Brazil, according to the study in question, are These figures can be compared with those of another study from Latin America ACOGRANOSin which two sets of data on post-harvest losses for maize divide the three main operations into two sub-groups, harvesting and shelling and drying, with the results as shown in Table 9.Travel timeTravel time is simultaneously considered an advantage and disadvantage of buses and is an important reason for mode choice.
In areas with exclusive bus lanes, and to travel to the city centre, the bus is considered faster than the car, mostly by public transport users.
CBEST, or California Basic Educational Skills Test, is a required exam for anyone seeking teacher certification in California. If you have: A high school diploma or GED.
Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".
This extends beyond the definition of "the economic analysis of constitutional law" and is distinct from explaining the.
Case study method is responsible for intensive study of a unit. It is the investigation and exploration of an event thoroughly and deeply.
You get a very detailed and in-depth study of a person or event. The main weakness of the case study method in comparative political analysis is that: it allows researchers to be confident about their results for the country they studied, but not to generalize beyond it with any assurance.
2. The case-study approach For example, individual health workers may respond differently to the same set of incentives; and patients vary in their response to treatment advice.